Bonds are investments that you can use as an alternative to savings accounts or shares or as part of a balanced portfolio of investments. Bonds carry more risk than a straightforward cash savings account, but are not as risky as stockmarket investments like stocks and shares (also known as equities).
Gilts are fixed interest products issued by the government and people tend to buy and hold them for the long term. Corporate bonds are similarly designed products but issued by companies wanting to borrow money, usually to expand.
Read on to find out if bonds are a good idea, how bonds work, and how to choose the best investment bond.
A bond is like an IOU. It's issued by a bank, government or company and pays a fixed interest to the person who holds it.
You can have a savings bond, also known as a fixed interest savings account, which runs for a set amount of time.
You can buy government bonds (gilts), which are fixed interest products issued by the government.
Or you can buy company bonds, known as corporate bonds, which are issued by companies. Corporate bonds are the most risky type of bond, because they are linked to the health and finances of a single company.
Bonds get credit rated, based on their issuer's underlying credit-worthiness. The better the credit rating (higher the grade of the bond) the lower the risk and the lower the interest rate paid.
Governments are generally triple-A rated, with company bonds from double A upwards considered high grade. Single and triple B ratings are upper and lower medium grade. Anything graded double B and lower considered non-investment grade - or junk bonds.
People choose to invest in bonds if they are looking for a higher rate of interest on their money than a savings account, but they are looking for a lower risk than shares.
Bonds and gilts tie up your money and are usually require you to commit to at least one year and often two or more years' time frame. They might be worth considering if you are looking for a medium term home for your money, but they are not really suitable as a short-term investment.
Also, savings bonds, gilts and company bonds are all different, so you will need to decide which type of bond to choose.
Put simply, a bond is when you lend money to an organisation and you receive a fixed amount of interest in return. Some bonds are more risky than others. Bonds issued by the UK government, known as gilts, are considered to be the most secure type of investment alongside savings accounts from regulated banks and building societies.
Savings bonds are similar to savings accounts, but your money is usually tied up for one to five years, so you can't withdraw it without paying a penalty (which is usually a loss of interest). Savings bonds are available from banks and building societies and you can buy them online or in a branch.
Bonds are a way for companies or governments to raise money without issuing shares. You can buy a bond from a company, or from the government. In return, the bond issuer pays you a regular sum of money, known as a coupon. At the end of the fixed term, you cash in your bond and get your money back.
You can also sell your bond to another investor before it matures. The prices change. A 10-year 'junk bond' for a start-up will pay a fixed high interest rate because it is high risk. If that start-up has become a successful business that is now able to issue investment grade bonds, You bond is paying a high interest rate but if actually low risk. The price you could get for your bond would be high.
Different bonds carry different levels of risk. Savings accounts and bonds are low risk, as are government gilts. Corporate bonds put your money at a higher risk, but are not as risky as shares. When you're looking for the best corporate bond you need to think about how much risk you are willing to take with your money.
Bond prices rise and fall depending on a number of different factors, but the interest rate they pay you says the same once you have bought the bond.
The price of a bond rises and falls depending on how risky it is thought to be, how likely the investor is to get their money back, and how attractive it is compared to other investments at the time, such as shares. You can buy a bond when it's first issued, or you can trade pre-owned bonds in the stock market.
The more financially stable a company is, the safer your money is likely to be.
Bonds issued by companies are known as company or corporate bonds. A bond is a form of debt issued by companies (corporate bonds) or the government (gilts) to raise money. In other words, they are loan stock, or "IOUs" and used as investment options.
If you buy a bond you are, in effect, lending money to the issuer. In return, the issuer promises to pay you a set rate of interest each year (this payment is known as a coupon) and to repay your capital at a set date in the future, known as the redemption date.
Depending on how far in the future this date is set, corporate bonds and gilts can be short term investments, medium term investments, or long term investments.
The interest rate on a corporate bond reflects how much risk you are taking. So a corporate bond from a large, financially stable company is likely to pay a lower rate of interest. Bonds have different ratings, from financially stable to risky.
Some companies that are struggling or in financial difficulty will pay a high rate of interest on their bonds in order to attract investors. These are known as junk bonds because there is a high risk of you not getting your money back if the company collapses.
Gilts are a form of bond or IOU issued by governments wanting to raise money, and they are known as gilts.
Corporate bonds are issued by corporations and gilts are bonds issued specifically by the government.
There are different types of gilts, but the majority are conventional gilts. These normally pay a fixed coupon twice a year and mature on a set, fixed date in the future. You can also buy index-linked gilts, where both the coupon payment and the value of the bond change according to the Retail Price Index (RPI) - a measure of the rate of inflation - or you can buy undated gilts, where there is no fixed redemption date.
Gilts typically pay coupons twice a year, whereas corporate bonds are more likely to pay coupons annually. They both offer a source of fixed income and investment options; the opportunity for capital growth is modest.
There are also investment bonds, which are not actually the same as a savings bond. Rather a fund that allows you to make a return on a single unit or with-profits fund and withdraw up to 5% from your original investment each year. These types of bonds are often seen as an 'income producing investment'.
Bonds are usually issued at £100 each and pay back £100 when they are redeemed, plus interest at a fixed rate each year until then. You can buy on the second hand market, although the price you pay will be governed by the rule of supply and demand and prevailing interest rates. If you buy for more than £100 and hold the bond until maturity, you will get back less than you invested.
If you pay less than the issue price you will make a gain when the bond matures. However, the market price is linked to interest rates - a lower price reflects a lower rate of interest, so when buying a bond or gilt you should consider the overall return that it offers you.
In general, bonds are lower risk than property or equities, but higher risk than investing cash in a savings account. Gilts are considered virtually risk-free as they are as good as guaranteed because they are backed by the government.
The risk attached to corporate bonds depends on the risk profile of the company that issues them. Issuers with a lower credit rating (the underlying company is thought to be less secure) are considered more risky. They will typically offer a higher rate of interest to attract investors, and to compensate bondholders for the additional risk.
If a company collapses, bondholders will be paid before shareholders, but ultimately repayment will depend on funds being available. For this reason, the return from bonds is not guaranteed. It's therefore important to select an issuer who matches your risk profile. Find out more about investment risk.
Different companies issue bonds with different levels of risk. When you're looking at the best bond rates and bond yields, or comparing bond fund options, you need to bear in mind that the higher the rate of interest, the higher the potential risk.
Riskier bonds are known as high interest bonds or junk bonds because the underlying company carries more risk. If you're looking for a more secure type of bonds to buy, you could consider investment grade bonds instead which are considered to be less risky.
If you want to check the price of gilts or gilt yields, you can look at the UK gilt prices chart, which should show what the current interest rates are, including the 10-year government gilt yield.
You can invest in a spread of government and corporate bonds through a bond fund. This effectively lowers your risk because if one bond fails to meet its payments you only have a small proportion of your fund invested in it, rather than possibly all of your money.
However, because of the mix of maturity dates and interest rates, bond funds cannot guarantee a fixed return, they can only give an estimate of the amount of income payable over the next 12 months.
Gilts and savings bonds will pay back your money at the end of the investment term. Corporate bonds (company bonds) may pay back your initial investment, plus interest, but this is not guaranteed.
In general, bonds are lower risk than property or equities, but higher risk than investing in cash. Gilts are less risky than corporate bonds. Gilts are not protected by the government compensation scheme, but they are regarded as a safe investment because they are backed by the UK government.
Bonds could be a good investment if you're looking for a predictable, stable income, but they don't offer significant capital growth opportunities. That means, you will not see your initial capital investment sum increase in value, but you will potentially earn interest.
Premium bonds, fixed rate and inflation-linked bonds are covered up to £85,000 per eligible person, per bank, building society or credit union by the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS), which covers up to £170,000 for joint accounts.
If you make an investment, and the firm failed after 1 April 2019, then you may be eligible for compensation from the FSCS up to £85,000, but this doesn't cover a direct investment in a corporate bond where the company goes bust.
Single corporate bonds are not protected, so there is a larger element of risk involved as if the underlying company doesn't pay your capital back you can't claim compensation.
Interest earned on bonds is usually taxed, unless the bonds are held in an Individual Savings Account (ISA). However, each adult has a Personal Savings Allowance (PSA) of £1,000 a year if they are a basic rate taxpayer and £500 a year if they're a higher rate taxpayer.
You don't have to pay tax on income, dividends and other investment income up to this threshold, and this includes income from corporate bonds and gilts.
With saving in fixed rate bonds you have easy access to your money, unlike an investment in property for instance.
You can normally sell bonds at any time with minimal impact to the capital invested, for this reason they can be a suitable choice for short to medium-term investment.
Modest capital gains are possible, these are tax-free on gilts and on some corporate bonds and investment bonds.
A bond fund allows you to purchase a mix of bonds and gilts lowering the risk of the investment, but the income you receive will vary and isn't guaranteed. You can buy bond funds online and you can buy corporate bonds and UK government gilts online as well.
The best bond for you depends on the level of risk you want to take, how much potential return you are looking for, and whether you want to choose a company bond or a less risky savings bond.
Think about whether you can afford to lose the money you have invested, or see its value go down. If you want a more secure investment at a fixed rate, then a government gilt or savings bond might be more suitable for you.