'Fully-loaded' Kodi boxes which let people watch illegal streams of copyrighted material online are "piracy 3.0", according to the Motion Picture Association of America.
A spokesperson for the trade association – which represents the six major Hollywood studios – has said that piracy is still a major threat for the film industry.
Stan McCoy, president and managing director of the Motion Picture Association of America's EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) region, said pirates were always finding new ways to circumvent the law.
"Piracy is not a static challenge," he told the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum. "The pirates are great innovators in their own right. So even as we innovate in trying to pursue these issues, and pursue novel ways of fighting piracy, the pirates are out there coming up with new business models of their own.
"If you think of old-fashioned peer-to-peer piracy as 1.0, and then online illegal streaming websites as 2.0, in the audio-visual sector, in particular, we now face challenge number 3.0, which is what I'll call the challenge of illegal streaming devices."
He added that because of their ease of use and huge choice of illegal content, fully-loaded Kodi boxes represented "a new sort of global Netflix but no rights holder gets paid."
Kodi is a form of media management software, and is perfectly legal in itself. However, some people have used it to run illegal add-ons that give them easy access to pirated content.