There is no single factor behind digital exclusion in the UK, a new study has found.
A heat map produced by charity Go ON UK has offered a new insight into the availability of broadband and digital skills with internet usage in an attempt to identify areas where local authorities can do more.
The combined digital indicator was measured using four metrics - infrastructure, access, basic digital skills and application of those core competencies.
The map also found the likelihood of exclusion was also influenced by social factors, including age and income.
It means that the issue of digital exclusion can in some cases be difficult to solve.
As a result, the digital indicators for Dundee and Torbay suggested a low likelihood of exclusion while social indicators suggested a high likelihood.
In contrast, Cambridge scored highly in social indicators but still had a medium risk of overall exclusion.
Leeds was also found to have a medium level of exclusion, with only 9% of households in the city unable to access digital broadband speeds of at least 2Mbps.
Another 13% of the city's adults have never been online and although 77% have all five Basic Digital Skills, only 36% of adults have actually used all five skills in the last three months.
Cardiff also has a high level of basic digital skills compared to surrounding areas and the UK as a whole, although Wales remains the nation with the lowest overall levels of skills.
The findings are likely to interest the UK Government, which is already in the middle of its Broadband Delivery UK (BDUK) project with BT.
It hopes to offer superfast broadband of over 24Mbps to 90% of the UK by early 2016.